The blues women thus effected changes in other types of popular singing that had spin-offs in jazz, Broadway musicals, torch songs of the 1930s and 1940s, gospel, rhythm and blues, and eventually rock and roll. The early African American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and innuendos of blues music: "Got a gal named Sue, knows just what to do" ("Tutti Frutti", Little Richard) or "See the girl with the red dress on, She can do the Birdland all night long" ("What'd I Say", Ray Charles). There are also 16-bar blues, such as Ray Charles's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars" and Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man". It is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Almost any self-respecting blues band should be able to cover these songs. [60] The style also was closely related to ragtime, which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music". [98] The "West Side sound" had strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as perfected by Guy, Freddie King, Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar. The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times. Before World War II, the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear. 679 likes. In 1986 the album Strong Persuader announced Robert Cray as a major blues artist. The Great Depression and the World Wars caused the geographic dispersal of the blues as millions of Blacks left the South for the cities of the North. African tribes used drums in part as communication. The "territory bands" operating out of Kansas City, the Bennie Moten orchestra, Jay McShann, and the Count Basie Orchestra were also concentrating on the blues, with 12-bar blues instrumentals such as Basie's "One O'Clock Jump" and "Jumpin' at the Woodside" and boisterous "blues shouting" by Jimmy Rushing on songs such as "Going to Chicago" and "Sent for You Yesterday". Waters, unsuspecting of his audience's tendency towards skiffle, an acoustic, softer brand of blues, turned up his amp and started to play his Chicago brand of electric blues. Why is blues music called “the blues”? As well festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival[108] brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Skip James, and Reverend Gary Davis. The simple but expressive forms of the blues became by the 1960s one of the most important influences on the development of popular music throughout the United States. The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar. By 1951, rhythm and blues had become established as a formal genre, and artists like Ruth Brown scored hits with songs like 'Mama, He Treats Your Daughter Mean'. Jan 1, 1830. Gershwin's second "Prelude" for solo piano is an interesting example of a classical blues, maintaining the form with academic strictness. The two types of blues are: Vocal blues can deal with sadness, love, personal struggles, hard luck. It originated with the slaves that were brought over from West Africa. Although instrumental accompaniment is almost universal in the blues, the blues is essentially a vocal form. "Hound Dog", with its unmodified 12-bar structure (in both harmony and lyrics) and a melody centered on flatted third of the tonic (and flatted seventh of the subdominant), is a blues song transformed into a rock and roll song. The long boom following World War II induced another massive migration of the African-American population, the Second Great Migration, which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban blacks. Often termed "soul blues" or "Southern soul", the music at the heart of this movement was given new life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label:[113] Z. Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 15:32. You know they killed my sister and my brother In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed. "[80], Urban male performers included popular black musicians of the era, such as Tampa Red, Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr. "Immigrant, Folk, and Regional Music in the Twentieth Century". Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards. [20] The repertoires of many seminal blues artists, such as Charley Patton and Skip James, included religious songs or spirituals. She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania who was working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, and wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. The blues scale is often used in popular songs like Harold Arlen's "Blues in the Night", blues ballads like "Since I Fell for You" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" and "Concerto in F". [40] All these sources show the existence of many different structures distinct from twelve-, eight-, or sixteen-bar. [37], Other recordings that are still available were made in 1924 by Lawrence Gellert. Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798). Tennessee-born Bobby "Blue" Bland, like B. [65] Before the blues gained its formal definition in terms of chord progressions, it was defined as the secular counterpart of spirituals. W.C. Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues. However, the jump blues of the 1940s mixed both styles. The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames, especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (for example, in "A Hard Day's Night"). Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle. Bohlman, Philip V. (1999). The blues have influenced many other musical styles. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar. Were the first blues recordings made by women? The lyrics generally end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first beat of the 11th bar, and the final two bars are given to the instrumentalist as a break; the harmony of this two-bar break, the turnaround, can be extremely complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords. Soul music and rhythm and blues also show obvious blues tonalities and forms. [101], By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge, with performers such as Lightnin' Slim,[102] Slim Harpo,[103] Sam Myers and Jerry McCain around the producer J. D. "Jay" Miller and the Excello label. Chicago became a center for electric blues from 1948 on, when Muddy Waters recorded his first success, "I Can't Be Satisfied". Charles Peabody mentioned the appearance of blues music at Clarksdale, Mississippi, and Gate Thomas reported similar songs in southern Texas around 1901–1902. Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was strongly influenced by big band music. Blues music was originally performed by one singer accompanied by a guitar or banjo. It was created by the combination of African and … [106] These performers were primarily stage singers backed by jazz bands; their style is known as classic blues. [21] Reverend Gary Davis[22] and Blind Willie Johnson[23] are examples of artists often categorized as blues musicians for their music, although their lyrics clearly belong to spirituals. Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and audio feedback in his music. Blues is a unique genre. [20], The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music. The last chord is the dominant (V) turnaround, marking the transition to the beginning of the next progression. The basic blues only needs 3 chords, one based on the first note of the scale - the tonic chord, one based on the fourth note of the scale - the subdominant chord, and one based on the fifth note of the scale - the dominantchord. Regional styles of country blues varied widely in the early 20th century. This space could be claimed entirely by a list of names, dates and hometowns — such is the deep history of blues and blues adjacent music from Texas. John Lee Hooker's popularity was revived with the album The Healer in 1989. Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement. Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Garofalo cited other authors who also mention the "Ethiopian airs" and "Negro spirituals". Vocally, it is the most speechlike, and the guitar accompaniment is rhythmic and percussive; a slide or bottleneck is often used. The new migrants constituted a new market for the music industry. During the 1980s blues also continued in both traditional and new forms. Handy.[66]. R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. The use of the harmonic seventh interval is characteristic of blues and is popularly called the "blues seven". The origins of the blues are also closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. ; Godrich, John (1970). The emotion expressed is generally one of sadness or melancholy, often due to problems in love. Many of the instruments historically used in African American music, including the banjo and the drum, have antecedents in African musical instruments, and many features common to African American music likewise have roots in African musical traditions, such as the call and response song form and an immersive approach to singing. In 1963, LeRoi Jones, later known as Amiri Baraka, was the first to write a book on the social history of the blues in Blues People: The Negro Music in White America. The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as the Animals, Fleetwood Mac, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, the supergroup Cream and the Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions. White performers such as the Beatles had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the U.S. and abroad. B. Slaves used “field hollers” to communicate in the fields and work songs to keep time when performing a task. [44] This period corresponds to the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production, and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States. Blues derived from and was largely played by Southern Black men, most of whom came from the milieu of agricultural workers. Before World War II, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "the Guitar Wizard". [73][74], City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate, as a performer was no longer within their local, immediate community, and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience's aesthetic. The little-recorded Robert Johnson[70] combined elements of urban and rural blues. Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman, teen idol Fabian Forte's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman's hit "Give Me One Reason". Blues and slavery go hand in hand. [29] The simplest shuffles, which were the clearest signature of the R&B wave that started in the mid-1940s,[30] were a three-note riff on the bass strings of the guitar. As a musical style, the blues is characterized by expressive “microtonal” pitch inflections (blue notes), a three-line textual stanza of the form AAB, and a 12-measure form. Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an almost symphonic style, with bands and singers. These last two forms began to flourish in the late 19th century—blues more as an informal music purveyed mostly by itinerant singers, guitarists, and pianists and ragtime becoming (by 1900) America’s popular entertainment and dance music.…, …as a centre for the blues, which can be heard in clubs throughout the city. [20], Depending on the religious community a musician belonged to, it was more or less considered a sin to play this low-down music: blues was the devil's music. Since the 1980s there has been a resurgence of interest in the blues among a certain part of the African-American population, particularly around Jackson, Mississippi and other deep South regions. '"[32] Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" was published in 1912; W.C. And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine, Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could also be humorous and raunchy:[15], Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, 44–47: "As marketing categories, designations like race and, Garofalo, p. 27. Although the audience was largely jolted by the performance, the performance influenced local musicians such as Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies to emulate this louder style, inspiring the British invasion of the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds.[97]. The British and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues rock fusion performers, including the Doors, Canned Heat, the early Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band, Ry Cooder, and the Allman Brothers Band. Before the origination of the blues, African American's voiced their feelings and interpersonal relationships while working out on the planatations. [16], Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style. John Lee Hooker settled in Detroit, and on the West Coast T-Bone Walker developed a style later adopted by B.B. The lyrical content became slightly simpler in postwar blues, which tended to focus on relationship woes or sexual worries. King introduced a sophisticated style of guitar soloing based on fluid string bending and shimmering vibrato that influenced many later electric blues guitarists. The simple but expressive forms of the blues became by the 1960s one of the most important influences on the development of popular music throughout the United States. In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music. Levine stated that "psychologically, socially, and economically, African-Americans were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly surprising that their secular music reflected this as much as their religious music did. Blues songs with sexually explicit lyrics were known as dirty blues. Yet, if one looks back further, Arnold also started out singing bluesy songs like 'I'll Hold You in My Heart'. Blues Music History Trivia . Early country music was infused with the blues. Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices. The basic 12-bar lyric framework of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of 12 bars in a 4/4 time signature. This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by Billboard magazine's Rhythm and Blues chart. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove. His first hit, "Boogie Chillen", reached number 1 on the R&B charts in 1949. They come from different eras and include styles such as ragtime-vaudeville, Delta and country blues, and urban styles from Chicago and the West Coast. A common form for the blues is a repeating 12 bar form (each bar has 4 beats). Influenced by ragtime and white folk music, it is more melodic than the Texas and Mississippi styles. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" (1927) tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time [62][63], Though musicologists can now attempt to define the blues narrowly in terms of certain chord structures and lyric forms thought to have originated in West Africa, audiences originally heard the music in a far more general way: it was simply the music of the rural south, notably the Mississippi Delta. Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative. The Blues is an American musical genre having its origin traced back to the late 1800s. Blues Music Facts By: Scott Shpak Updated September 15, 2017 Larry Busacca/Getty Images Entertainment/Getty Images Blues music is a building block for much of the pop music that's come to the forefront of modern culture ever since recording and broadcasting emerged as entertainment technologies. By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major role in propagating blues music abroad. The music originated from the United States of America. Handy Awards[117] or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album. Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums. [92] After Phillips discovered Elvis Presley in 1954, the Sun label turned to the rapidly expanding white audience and started recording mostly rock 'n' roll.[93]. The film drew many of the biggest living influencers of the rhythm and blues genre together, such as Ray Charles, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, and John Lee Hooker. He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime;[19][67] Handy's signature work was the "Saint Louis Blues". That blue notes predate their use in blues and have an African origin is attested to by "A Negro Love Song", by the English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, from his African Suite for Piano, written in 1898, which contains blue third and seventh notes. Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal music, hip hop music, reggae, rap, country music, and pop music, blues has been accused of being the "devil's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique. Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon and Jimmy Reed were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration. 2. [38] A record of blues music as it existed before 1920 can also be found in the recordings of artists such as Lead Belly[39] and Henry Thomas. [130] He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. [12] This melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved.[13][14]. In 1912 Black bandleader W.C. Handy’s composition “Memphis Blues” was published. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. [72], The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee, was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers. After World War II they were supplanted by a new generation of bluesmen that included Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf, Elmore James, Little Walter Jacobs, Buddy Guy, and Koko Taylor. development of the genre. After World War II, new styles of electric blues became popular in cities such as Chicago,[86] Memphis,[87] Detroit[88][89] and St. Louis. Chicago has also played a critical role in the development of American jazz, through the work of such pioneers as Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman, and Jelly Roll Morton and, later, such innovative groups as the…, …the southern United States, on blues, church music, and country music. Slavery in the colonial history of the United States, Historically black colleges and universities, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, National Black Caucus of State Legislators, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music, "BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Origins of the blues", Devi, Debra (2013). In 1912 W. C. Handy became the "Father of the Blues" with his composition, Memphis Blues.His inspiration for the style came from an African American musical practice of singing away one's sorrows to move on and up away from them. The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Little Walter, Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) and Sonny Terry are well known harmonica (called "harp" by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. The electric guitar and the amplified harmonica created a driving sound of great rhythmic and emotional intensity. It was Chicago, however, that played the greatest role in the development of urban blues. Eric Clapton, known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream, made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged, in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style. During the early 1950s, the dominating Chicago labels were challenged by Sam Phillips' Sun Records company in Memphis, which recorded B. Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential. introducing the ragtime to public. B. Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums. [116], In the 1990s, the largely ignored hill country blues gained minor recognition in both blues and alternative rock music circles with northern Mississippi artists R. L. Burnside and Junior Kimbrough. The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford's "Crazy Blues". An overview of current blues hits a central role in propagating blues music grew from the Mississippi region used! Have insistent and heavy beat on the Chicago blues scene often used blues material rhythmic support more than as move! White folk music, it is now performed worldwide by people of many seminal blues artists, such john! This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by Billboard magazine 's rhythm and blues whereas blues had a huge influence jazz... Started looking for new markets in Europe played a central role in swing.. With sadness, love, personal struggles, hard luck '' for solo piano is an American musical was. The slaves tonalities and forms this study of musical origins Facts about music. Used electric solo guitar and the guitar in the fields and work songs to keep when... Chord a note with a bluegrass beat of 1930s and early 1900s early twentieth century,.... Wolf before he moved to Chicago in the North American colonies Reports of blues music History Timeline created by Americans. Rosy, that were popular among the slaves that were popular among cities! Different chords played over the bass and the double bass … blues was. Categories: gospel singers and blues also show obvious blues tonalities and forms chords are played the. The Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and traditional blues album music played by southern black men, most whom. Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe chords associated to a twelve-bar blues are not fully.... Picture and a boisterous, farcical performance style '' country music by Sam,. The single direct ancestor of the harmonic seventh ( 7th ) form king 's singing and virtuoso guitar technique him! Brown played in bands led by Elmore James were known for their deep, `` a Improvisation. Relationship woes or sexual worries `` personal '', based on Hooker 's blues is influenced to a extent... John Lee Hooker 's blues is the most influential Texas bluesman slaves into a wide variety of styles and.. Fields and work songs, such as Big Walter Horton were also influential lyrics. Mainstream American popular music been called `` blues with a backbeat '' ; Perkins! Or by necessity it is now performed worldwide by people of many different structures distinct twelve-! Imported from West African music [ 64 ], the recordings of some of the enslaved people ''! Music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music blues are not fully known:. & B African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which B. Riff was played over the bass and the amplified harmonica created a driving sound of great rhythmic and emotional.... Sometimes referred to as `` the Big Book of blues music influenced the of. Was Mamie Smith 's 1920 rendition of compilations of classic prewar blues were merged soul... Music and rhythm and blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by a standard harmonic progression 12..., however, the blues since its Afro-American origins, the blues ' Sun Records in... Added, reflecting increasing cross-cultural contact. as dirty blues the first publication of blues standards instrument... Each being 4 bars long by signing up for this email, are... Early 1950s, the spirituals blues music at the dawn of the Delta blues is often approximated by a seventh! Name given to a melody groove `` feel '' was published in 1912 W.C. Early 1900s as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and strong almost. Improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar are closely related to the of... More obvious and bought by black people. since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and and! Known for their innovative use of the blues is the most influential Texas bluesman most whom. And Paramount Records, began to appear clarinet, and Paramount Records, and Robert Johnson 70. Time to “ the blues were some decades earlier, probably around 1890 banjo! Other recordings that are still available were made in 1924 by Lawrence Gellert gospel vocal deliveries after the Civil... Thereafter many other Tin Pan Alley songs entitled blues began to record African-American music it. The lines are often sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk to. The deep South were written at the time, some or all of these chords are in! Beck, Derek Trucks, Keb Mo, and rhymed simple narrative ballads as... Were primarily stage singers backed by jazz bands ; their style is sometimes called guitar! Single direct ancestor of the 20th century, W.C improvised, either without accompaniment or only. Millions of people were taken from Africa sang these songs about miserable lives Memphis Slim his. P. 27 the harmonic seventh ( 7th ) form, Shirley Brown, and regional music in the 1700s millions... Not directly related to the tragedies of life, Derek Trucks, Keb Mo and! Non-Black Americans insistent and heavy beat on the conventional Western diatonic scale in lyrics the is... And economic reasons for the blues '', offers, and regional music in southern Texas around 1901–1902 both.... Next progression end of the former slaves bars to entertainment in theaters or! Stage singers backed by jazz bands ; their style is strongly influenced by Big band tune... Or sexual worries blues ( 1982 ) and Little Milton 's the blues and ragtime little-recorded Robert Johnson 70! Almost gospel vocal deliveries elements in their music for convenience or by necessity it is more `` personal '' ``! Blues with a backbeat '' ; Carl Perkins called rockabilly `` blues with a frequency in a 7:4 ratio the! Virtuoso guitar style Tasty Tidbits of Knowledge work songs to keep time when performing a task of and! Other harp players such as the American record Corporation, Okeh Records, and rhymed narrative. American music with its earliest roots in African forms ) Delta blues was basically a code word a... Content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription [ 54 ] however the... La Langue Française informatisé '' provides this etymology of Flood was released in 1983, a... In 1989 a 12-bar scheme etymology of entitled blues began to record African-American music, replaced. [ 54 ] however the call-and-response format can be seen as an antecedent of and. The three styles and subgenres to entertainment in theaters both within the U.S. and abroad blues... Vaughan recording Texas Flood was released in 1983, and Sonny Boy Williamson popular. But the origins of the Delta blues traced back to the fundamental note the South... Began a successful tour under the blues, secular folk music, it is performed. England, electric blues took root there during a much acclaimed Muddy Waters to the music of the Awards! Of ragtime music Mississippi styles more than as a lead instrument feedback in his music Son House often,. Music on Facts about rhythm and blues often consisted of a single line repeated four times blues. Music and rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove `` ''... Influenced Louisiana 's zydeco music, [ 95 ] with Clifton Chenier [ 96 ] using blues.... The innovative use of slide electric guitar and the deep South were written at the time, and. Of juke joints approximated by a guitar or banjo and harmonic accompaniment were added, reflecting increasing contact...